|Name: Hamedan||Capital: Hamedan|
|Density: 62,858 km2||Population(2016): 1,738,234|
|Counties: 9||Area code(s): 081|
Hamedan province is in the Midwest part of Iran, in the Zagros Mountains, approximately at the distance of 360 kilometers (220 miles) southwest of Tehran. Hamadan has a cold, green, mountainous area in the foothills of the Alvand Mountain. Its adjacent provinces are Kurdistan and Kermanshah in the west, Zanjan and Qazvin in the north, Markazi in the east, and Lorestan in the south. Hamedan became an independent province in 1973 according to the law. Based on the latest divisions of the country announced on the website of the Statistics Center of Iran, it has 9 counties, 29 towns, 25 districts, and 73 villages. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old province and its historical sites attract tourists during the summer every year.
The city of Hamedan has a radial design. In geographical terms, such cities are called Baroque. The central square of Hamedan is the central point of the circle. The construction of this square started in 1307 AH and has been used since 1311.
History and culture
Hamedan (Hamadan) City, the center of Hamedan Province, is one of the oldest cities in the world! Its name first appears as Amedaneh or Amadi in the inscription of Tiglet, Pilser I (1100 BC), king of Assyria. It was the capital of the Medes and kings during the Achaemenid and Parthian periods. Constitutionalism manifested itself in Hamedan, especially before any other city in Iran, which resulted in the establishment of offices, city associations, municipalities, and prosecuting offices. Two years before the Socialists reached the constitution in Kerman and later in Tehran, the first local council was formed in Hamedan by the efforts of Zahir al-Dowleh.
The structures of Hamedan City are related to Deioces (Diakou) the first king of the Medes, according to the poet ‘Ferdowsi’, about (700 BC). According to the records of Herodotus, a Greek historian, this territory was called 'Ekbatan' and 'Hegmataneh' by this monarch. Cyrus the Great, in 550 BC, defeated the last king of Medes and chose this city as his summer residence. After the end of the Median tribe, although Hamedan lost its centrality, it was still considered as one of the three Achaemenid capitals. The existence of “Ganjnameh” inscriptions, the remains of the stone columns of the Achaemenid palaces, and the golden and silver tablets obtained from Hamedan indicate the importance of this region in the Achaemenid period.
Alexander the Great visited Hamedan twice; first in pursuit of Darius III in 330 BC, and second in 324 BC on his way back from India. After arriving in Hamedan, Alexander held a celebration on the occasion of his victories.
Hamedan was also the summer capital of the Parthian kings. At the foot of “Mosalla Hill” in Hamedan, there is a large lion statue. Apparently, during the Parthian period, this statue was installed on the side of one of the city gates with another statue that was symmetrical. Later, the Arabs called that gate Baba al-Assad. “Parti Cemetery” has been used in Hamedan since the Parthian period. Hamedan was also one of the last bases of the Parthian resistance against the new Sasanian Monarchy.
In the Arab invasion, the city of Hamedan was so important and prestigious that the Arabs considered its conquest after Nahavand, capital of Nahavand County in Hamedan Province, to be their greatest victory over the Sasanian Empire. The city of Hamadan which was always assaulted by the rise and fall of powers was completely destroyed during the Teimourid (Timurid) invasion. During the Safavid era the city thrived. Thereafter, in the year 1138 AH, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah Afshar, Hamadan was once again free of invaders and according to the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. The city of Hamadan lay on the 'Silk Road' and even in the last centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of the country.
In the past, the city of Hamedan was divided into several neighborhoods, some of which had gates and at certain times of night the gates were closed. The alleys of the area were formed like mazes with dark and fully covered passages that only the locals knew well and could pass through without getting lost!
The majority of people in Hamedan speak in Persian with a ‘Hamedani’ accent. A minority of Turkish-speaking people also live in Hamedan. Hamedan and its functions have long had a deep-rooted and rich culture, some of the elements of which are as old as three thousand years of history.
In Hamedan, there is a great variety of food and in addition to the types of food that are cooked all over Iran, some types of local food as well as several types of special Abgoosht (broth) are common. But Broths, nowadays, are not liked by the younger generation. Also in Hamedan, due to the variety of vegetables growing in the foothills, people tend to cook Ash (soup) more than other provinces.
Hamedan province is one of the mountainous, cold, and windy provinces of Iran. Terrain lands in Hamedan province have been created in different ways, more importantly by the presence of running water that is flowing in Hamedan province. These waters in some highlands and the accumulation of alluvium in the lowlands have reduced the height of mountains, creating many plains, plateau, and valleys.
The weather in Hamedan is cold in mountainous areas and the temperature drops to 30 degrees below zero. The climate of the province is affected by latitude, altitude, location, mountain range, and distance from the sea. In general, the climate of the province is highly variable due to the presence of high mountains, rivers, and high elevations. The winters in this province are cold, snowy, and rainy, and the summers are mild.
The city of Hamedan is located in the valleys and northern slopes of Alvand Mountain which is the highest peak of this province with a height of 3574 meters above sea level. Apart from Alvand Mountain, there are low-lying mountains between this city and Zanjan city, which are: Chang-e Almas Mountain, Armenian Mountain, and Qarrehdagh Mountain. In the east of Hamedan is Vafs Mountain and in the northeast of Hamedan is the Kharaqqan mountain range which is the natural border between Hamedan and Qazvin.
There is no desert in Hamedan Province because of 343 mm of annual rainfall. However, there isn’t any big forest region in the province, only some green limited areas. Tree species of these areas include oak, kikum (forest maple), Daghdaghan, wild pear, sparrow tongue, and shrub species such as almond, Arjen, Daphne, and sumac.
The suitable geographical location of the province has created the best habitat for some animal species. Unfortunately, in recent decades, factors such as the presence of poachers, droughts caused by sudden climate change, dehydration of wetlands and rivers, overgrazing and out-of-season grazing in pastures have caused irreparable damage to the province's wildlife. Significant and important animal species of this province are Armenian rams and mouflon, wild goats, golden eagle, and swallow.
Hamedan is mostly known for its unique city texture. This urban plan is so special that they compare the aerial map of Hamedan at night with the aerial map of cities like Moscow and praise its beauty. But the main symbol of the city of Hamedan is the element of the tomb of Bo Ali Sina (Avicenna), which is special and popular for the special style of architecture and prominent personality of this Persian Polymath.
The main symbols of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument, and the Baba Taher Mausoleum.
- Baba Taher (poet)
- Fereydoon Moshiri (poet)
- Mirzadeh Eshghi (political writer)
- Ehsan Yarshater (historian)
- Hossein Masoumi Hamedani (translator, writer)
- Avicenna “Abu Ali Sina” (polymath)
- Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani (poet)
- Leather crafting
- Basket weaving
- Carpet weaving
As you can see Hamedan Province is full of wonderment, especially if you’re a fan of art and history. So what’s your excuse for not visiting this marvelous piece of land?!
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